This study tackles the governance of Zakat in light of the purposes of Sharia, as the governance of Zakat has its own legitimate purposes that help the Muslim community economically, with provision of the concept of Zakat governance. The study concludes that the main objective of Zakat governance is the need to make sure that all information related to Zakat be accurate, sufficient and available in a timely manner; In order to allow various stakeholders to take appropriate decisions in order to achieve the set objectives. Zakat governance standards include: existence of an effective framework for governance, rule of law applied to all, accountability of all the state's public and private institutions, transparency, and participation; as well as how to apply governance methods to achieve the legitimate purposes of Zakat, and finally he controls of governance to achieve the purposes of Zakat.
The concept of citizenship addresses several problematics of the contemporary state such as identity, belonging, rights and duties, marginalization, conflicts, social solidarity and economic development. This paper explores the concept of citizenship from an Islamic perspective, and raises some questions, including: What is the concept of citizenship? What are its dimensions and foundations? How did this concept develop historically? What are the results of its application in contemporary systems? What is the status of the homeland in Islam? How did the constitution of the first state of Islam tackle this concept? What are the most significant rights and duties of a citizen in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah?
The Lebanese have never been on strong accord; rather, they have often been distributed, in terms of orientation, on various regional and international axes, based on sectarian affiliation and common interests between Lebanese groups and foreign countries. On this basis, the Lebanese Army has been incepted since 1916 under the French occupation, even before the end of World War I and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. Within the framework of the French-British rivalry, Lebanon gained its independence in 1943, but the army remained under French authority until August 1, 1945. This study tackles the history of the Lebanese army and the dimensions of its role in Lebanon.
Since the outbreak of the Tunisian revolution in late 2010; Tunisia has been moving towards democratic transformation at a steady pace, unlike the rest of the Arab experiences, where revolutions were either aborted through counter-revolutions, amid popular despair; or they were not strong enough to go ahead on the path towards democracy. Thus, the Tunisian experience has been considered an exception and an ideal model for liberation from the grip of tyranny prevailing in the Arab world. However, although the “independent” Kais Saied came to power through democratic procedures as an elected president, he did not refrain from creating political and administrative disputes that have undermined state agencies, disrupted government action and posed threats to public interests. The end result was that instead of addressing and solving the state’s problems, he further exacerbated them.
Since the 3 July 2013 coup d’etat, Egypt has been witnessing serious human rights violations and repression of basic freedoms, where Egyptians who reject the hegemony of military rule have been exposed to countless killings, torture, arbitrary arrests, enforced disappearances, extrajudicial executions, and unfair trials. The central reason for the widespread occurrence of these grave violations is the nature of the Sisi military regime, which used repression to intimidate Egyptians across their political spectra and tighten its security grip on them, to prevent them from demanding their rights advocated in the January Revolution, most prominently to free Egypt from the grip of military tyranny and transform it into a civil and democratic state.
Based on statements on which the “consensus” and “power-sharing” theories are based, this study seeks finding out some experiences and expertise within a comparative framework between democratic countries and recent transitions toward democracy. The study consists of into two sections, the first deals with standards and rules of civil control over the military and security institutions and the challenges facing them. Second, the civil-military relations: experiences and expertise.
The study highlights the importance of the Nile River for the Egyptian national security and the role of regional and international countries in fueling the dispute between the Nile Basin countries, particularly Israel. It also suggests why the United States stands by Ethiopia in this conflict, and addresses the role entrusted to the UN Security Council in bringing the views of the conflicting countries closer, in addition to discussing Egypt’s military options in undermining this dangerous project.
The Biden administration issued a blue version of the US National Security Document, including broad goals and priorities for US national security, where it considered China the US's main rival which is mostly capable of using its economic, diplomatic, military and technical resources to challenge the global order. The document also highlighted Russia's determination to maximize its global influence, and to play the role of a "saboteur" on the international stage. The document also stated that regional players such as North Korea and Iran seek development of their capabilities and technologies in a way that may threaten regional stability. In this context, the study sought to answer the question: How did this reflect on the American deployment of forces in both the Arab region and the Mediterranean?
This study proceeds from the fact that the basic intent of the jurisprudential process targets “interest” and “reform”; and therefore it cannot be taken to areas that are against this basic intent, to “tyranny”, “corruption”, sabotage, or “disorder”, conducive to undermining urbanization, which, in turn, generates a series of research issues similar to the project of Malik Ben Nabi when he established his urban project in “Problems in Building Civilization.”
This study suggests that understanding problematics of development and advancement in our country requires exploration of questions beyond those usually asked with respect to the traditional development thought about resources, structures, advantages, opportunities, challenges, strategies, etc. It requires exploration into deeper civilizational situations, including real trends and potentials for advancement, as well as obstacles that have led to failure of efforts exerted in this regard for decades.