- Issue 19 Supplement: Full Text of Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
The paper addresses the most prominent challenges posed by the Covid-19 Pandemic on the areas of earning living and work on the one hand; and on the other hand, the consequent problems in three areas: education, the state’s role in monitoring society, and violence against the vulnerable categories in families, i.e. children and women.
With the outbreak of the Covid-19 Pandemic, countries have taken many paths with the aim of alleviating the economic recessions threatening the whole world. Hence, it is important to carefully study these procedures, in attempt to come up with lessons to be learned to avoid recurrence of what the world witnessed in the past months, as well as attempt to explore the main features of some important economic issues that have formed the main pillars of global economic activity during the past fifty years, where some of its main features may change in the post-Corona era, especially the role of the capitalist state, globalization, central banks, poverty and unemployment, related to policies of distributing income and wealth in the world. The paper seeks to extrapolate this through the economic conditions of Turkey and the most important economic repercussions of the closure and social distancing measures on the Turkish economy, as well as the most important measures taken by the government to confront these repercussions, and to stimulate the return of economic activity to its previous levels in light of precautions to prevent the spread of the virus again.
The paper seeks to analyze the situation of the British economy after exiting the European Union, how the country faced the negative effects of the Brexit, the negative effects of the coronavirus on the British economy, the economic policies that the state used to confront these repercussions, and their compatibility with the pillars of the capitalist system and globalization. The paper also addresses the role of UK's central bank [Bank of England (BoE)], in addition to generality and inclusiveness of these policies, and how fat they may prevent further poverty and unemployment there.
With the outbreak of the Covid-19 Pandemic, various political systems have faced major crises prior to the pandemic, where there had been a great debate about the role of the state in economy, weakness of democracy mechanisms, roles of armies and security services, and the relationship of armies to politics. However, with the repercussions of the Covid-19 crisis, questions started to arise about the legitimacy and future of political systems, and even about the nature and concepts of politics.
The study sheds light on historical development of the coronavirus in terms of its origin, its appearance among humans, its evolution and the main stations it passed through before reaching its current form. The study also reviews the most important characteristics of the current coronavirus generation, as well as the problems associated with it, and finally areas and nature of its spread.
This paper seeks to provide an explanation of the most important events during an important stage in the history of Egypt, starting with the January Revolution in 2011 through the July coup d'etat in 2013, and the paths set by leaders of the military institution to eliminate the first democratic experiment that Egypt witnessed, up to May 2014, when Abdel Fattah El-Sisi assumed power as the head of the state, and the repercussions of this within the military institution and the sovereign apparatus.
The foundational signs of the ancient Egyptian army appeared during the era of King Mina; that is, more than five thousand years ago, when he united the two parts of Egypt in the south and north (Upper Egypt and the Delta). However, it is certain that with the Fifth Dynasty, features of a regular army started to appear, which became evident during the Sixth Dynasty era when King Pepi I launched a disciplinary military campaign against the Bedouin tribes on the eastern borders of Egypt. The study seeks to identify the importance of the army in ancient Egypt, and its role in peace and war, through an introduction, two chapters and a conclusion.
The Horn of Africa has become one of the most vital regions in the world, which made it subject to the ambitions of international and regional powers, and an arena for competition to obtain its economic benefits and take advantage of its geostrategic position, in addition to expansion of the outlets of their military presence in the region, with the use of political, economic or military pressure. This resulted in the fragility of security as a result of the growing sources of threat affecting the region, which led to expansion of wars and conflicts and a rise in frequency of terrorism and piracy crimes.
The paper proceeds from a premise that “after Prince Mohammed bin Salman assumed his position as Crown Prince in mid-2017, he, along with his close advisors, have become the most important actors in most stages of public policy-making, setting the agenda, designing policies, decision-making, implementing policies and evaluating them, despite the fact that King Salman remains on top of the political hierarchy, and his move to sometimes redress the decisions of his crown prince, especially in times of escalating internal and external crises. The paper attempts to answer some key questions, such as: Did the public policy-making environment in Saudi Arabia during the era of King Salman differ from previous eras? Why? How far did "Vision 2030" add with respect to public policies? How different is "Vision 2030" from the previous Saudi five-year plans?
The study proceeds from the fact that the water issue is one of the most significant strategic challenges to Arab national security, in light of numerous considerations, including the predominance of the desert nature in Arab countries on the one hand, and the fact that the main sources of the key Arab rivers are located in non-Arab countries, such as the Nile River, the main source of water in Egypt and Sudan, basically stems from Ethiopia. However, the issue has become more serious with Ethiopia’s construction of a number of dams on the river, most prominently the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) project, and the use of water as a card of political pressure against Egypt and Sudan, with regional and international extensions and interventions, which deepens the crisis and escalates the gravity of the challenge.