This study attempts to answer several questions about these initiatives in terms of the idea itself, its representatives, how it is introduced and the forms of response to it from official or non-official parties. The paper also explores how far these initiatives have achieved benefits for both parties (State – Islamic Group). It also addresses these initiatives’ features, contexts, and circumstances in building a realistic perception about similar projects currently suggested. The paper reviews the theoretical foundations of the approach of intellectual reform from an authoritarian security perspective, then addresses the experience of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s reviews, the identity of participants, how they were implemented, the time they took, the forms of response to them, and to what extent they achieved positives results, either in favor of the Mubarak regime, then the Sisi regime, or for the benefit of the Egyptian Islamic Group.
This paper examines the main headlines of the Egyptian public service discourse through addressing the official discourse of Egyptian officials during the period of Al-Sisi's rule, exploring the message that the regime emphasizes in various speeches and statements both at home and abroad, and how far the official speeches and actual policies applied on the ground are consistent. The study seeks to answer the following questions: To what extent has the public service discourse during the era of Sisi expressed the aspirations of the citizen's life? And to what extent is the official discourse consistent with the actual policies? Is the public service discourse at home the same as that directed abroad?
This article addresses the Palestinian resistance's underground tunnels and highlights their strategic importance, their origins in the Gaza Strip, and their impact on the withdrawal of the Israeli occupation from the Gaza in 2005. The study also addresses the tunnel technology, types of tunnels, their impact on the Israeli occupation, their future role in any upcoming war, the Israeli occupation’s means against the tunnel strategy, and the Palestinian resistance’s countermeasures.
The study adopts the regional order approach; as the region here is the Middle East as a geographical framework that brings Saudi Arabia and Turkey together. The study attempts to explore how far the Middle East region order with its various components affected the Turkish-Saudi relations during the period from 2011 to 2019. The study is divided into four main topics, including the impact of international units, the impact of regional structure, the impact of organizational and legal institutions located in the Middle East region, and the impact of regional interactions, with respect to both the conflictual and co-operational aspects.
This study addresses the principle of prohibiting the use of force in the UN Charter and reviews the only three exceptions to this principle: the first about the states’ right to self-defense, whether individually or collectively as an exception to the legal rule (prohibiting the use of force in international relations) according to provisions of Article 51; the second about the mechanism of the collective security system in accordance with Chapter VII of the UN Charter, and the third about the right of peoples to self-determination and resistance of foreign occupation by all means.
This article reviews definitions of democracy as a term in dictionaries and encyclopedias, as a form of governance revolving around the rule of the majority against the rule of the minority. According to the study, democracy does not mean the same thing for different peoples and countries, stating that democracy, as a concept and as an institution, originated in Western civilization, then spread regionally and afterwards globally.
This study is an attempt to answer some major questions: What are the determinants of the policies of international powers in the Arab region during the period of popular revolutions? What are the patterns and levels of these policies? What are their tracks and likely scenarios in light of the developments of the Arab revolutions? What are their likely future implications?