The study is divided into three main parts: - The first part addresses the jihadist situation in Egypt since its inception until the January Revolution (2011). - The second part deals with the jihadist situation in Egypt since the January Revolution to the military coup on 3 July 2013. - The third part addresses the jihadist situation since the military coup until mid-2018.
The judiciary has not been spared political interference during the contemporary history of Egypt from the 1950s to the 1990s and the beginnings of the new millennium that witnessed the formation of a sector of judges that demanded independence of judiciary. However, the January 2011 revolution has revealed existence of a widespread penetration of the judiciary from within, manifested in the mock trials and politicized verdicts issued against thousands of detainees, highlighting the major changes in the relationship between judiciary and power in Egypt.
The study assumes that there is a double-faceted discourse for army leaders, where official statements differ significantly from what is said behind closed doors. The study seeks to reveal the characteristics of the hidden discourse of senior army leaders and its most significant features, compared to their public discourse, declared in official statements.
The economic factor is considered one of the main variables that contribute to achievement of the integration of Maghreb countries. The study attempts to answer the question: What are the economic obstacles facing the integration of Maghreb countries? The study is divided into two axes: The first axis addresses the intra-Maghreb trade. The second axis deals with the impact of economic globalization on the integration of Maghreb countries.
This study addresses the legal status of children during armed conflicts, where the children have rights only without duties or obligations, in light of international and national legislation. The study highlights some mechanisms that protect children's rights during armed conflicts and the effectiveness of international efforts to reintegrate or rehabilitate children, victims of armed conflict.
The concept of power is the cornerstone of international relations, especially its solid and violent form. Military power is one of the most important elements of State power, whether it is used directly or used indirectly through threats or blocking aid ... etc. The international community has made enormous efforts to regulate the use and control of military force, to create a civilized and developed society, and to prevent violent crimes and extremely violent massacres, especially after the development of weapons of mass destruction. In this context, the study is divided into three parts: - First: the concept of power and its properties, - Second: the difference between soft power and smart power, and - Third: the electronic power and international interactions.
This study refutes theories suggesting that Egyptians accept tyranny and surrender to it, describing these theories as pure propaganda theories that do not stand up to the facts of history. In this respect, it reviews comments attributed to Greek Philosopher Aristotle; the great companion of Prophet Mohamed, Amr ibn Al-Aas; and theories that rely on historically unproven philosophical claims between Montesquieu in the “Spirit of Laws”, and even the great German philosopher George Hegel, as well as the socialist philosopher Karl Marx; and Karl Weitvogel in his book “Eastern tyranny”.
The decision-making process in American foreign policy includes a large number of participating parties and active institutions, with a diversity in the nature of these parties and those institutions in each case. In certain cases, the institutions involved in decision-making include the Congress, the legislative bodies of states, and courts; and in other cases, they include the President, the State Department, the Pentagon, the competent executive bodies, the Congress, and even foreign countries. Sometimes, the decision-making parties are limited to the Congress, the courts, and the President. In this context, this study addresses the map of this institution and the nature of its roles and patterns of interactions in the process of making the US foreign policy.