Issue No. 28 of the Egypt Institute Journal, published in October 2022, included several political, strategic, economic, intellectual, and legal articles, as follows:

1- East Turkistan: Maps of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Muhammad Amin Uyghur

The study addresses the violations against citizens of East Turkestan by the People’s Republic of China since 1949, based on the definition of genocide, as stated in United Nations General Assembly Resolution No. 96/1 of 11 December 1946: “Genocide is a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live of individual human beings; such denial of the right of existence shocks the conscience of mankind, results in great losses to humanity in the form of cultural and other contributions represented by these human groups, and is contrary to moral law and to the spirit and aims of the United Nations.”

2- Military balances and trajectories of the Russian-Ukrainian war, Mohammed Issam Laaroussi

The study handles military balances in light of the Russian-Ukrainian war, the strategies of the armies of Western countries and the Russian Federation, the repercussions of the military conflict on the rules and infrastructure of the international order, and the risks threatening the world as a result, amid continuation of the war that came in a stage of economic exhaustion after the Corona Pandemic. The study highlights the conflicting military narratives and strategies of international and regional actors, where prolongation of the military conflict further complicates the negotiating structure of the conflicting parties, in light of the dissonance and conflict of interests between the parties to the conflict.

3- Southeast Asia: A Geostrategic and Security Study, Dr. Amina Halal

The study views Southeast Asia from the perspective that it has been the destination of strategic interest for many competing international geostrategies over several centuries. This significance comes from the important geographical location and the economic importance of ASEAN, in addition to the fact that global energy security mostly relies on the security of the sea lanes existing in the region. All these factors have made the region a focus of future geostrategic competition among the most important major world powers. Therefore, the future of security in the Asia-Pacific region depends on the stability of this region.

4- International changes and their impact on Africa’s regional reality, Dr. Hashem Ali Hamed

The study seeks to answer the following question: In light of the huge potentials that Africa enjoys, what are the most significant international changes in the second decade of the twenty-first century, and what are their impact on the continent? – Given that the African continent is the second largest in the world in terms of area and population, as it is second only to Asia, with an area of ​​30.2 million square kilometers, including neighboring islands. Also, Africa covers 6% of the Earth’s total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area; and its population is estimated at 1.2 billion people living in 61 regions, accounting for about 14.8 percent of the world’s population.

5- The concept of military doctrine, its position and its sources, Major General Dr. Rafik Abu Hani

Scholars specializing in military doctrine have worked hard to develop an accurate definition of it, as many studies have indicated that the natural position of military doctrine is at the top of the military pyramid in a state, after which come other military levels. The tasks of the military doctrine include drawing supreme policies in military affair, as well as the supreme military directives, and preparing the country to fight war; hence comes the importance of learning about the military doctrine’s concept, dimensions, position, and sources.

6- Social Networking Sites and Religious Field Issues in Egypt: A Review of the Structure of Concepts, Ibrahim El-Sherif

Social networking sites are now unprecedentedly playing very important roles in the civilized and cultural structures of Arab societies, where developments in this area are accelerating in coincidence with technological development experienced by the world. The religious field is considered one of the most prominent fields that attract the attention of researchers in the social sciences in the Arab world. In this context, there are several concepts that vary between those related to social media and those related to the religious field, where these concepts constitute the infrastructure of social networking sites and the topic of the Internet in general. its frame.

In this regard, the study sought to address the most prominent concepts, which are essential for understanding the relationships between the Internet and social networking sites.

7- The Crisis of Egypt’s Foreign Exchange Obligations: Dimensions and Consequences, Dr. Ahmed Zikrallah

The study aims to “estimate the current foreign obligations in hard currency on the Egyptian economy, and the resulting gap between revenues and obligations; and then estimate how far it is possible to bridge this gap and fulfill these obligations in the foreseeable future.”

8- Health Policies in Egypt: Initiatives in Absence of Strategies, Dr. Mostafa Gawish

The central problematic, subject of the study, includes providing answers to two basic questions: First: Does the Egyptian government have a certain document outlining the health policy and strategies for supporting it? Second: Are such policies and strategies actually being implemented on the ground, and what is the alternative to them?

9- Egypt’s map of museums: prevalence and feasibility, Dr. Hussein Duqeil

Given the fact that Egypt is fertile with non-stop archaeological finds, successive governments have sought to establish museums to preserve and display these discoveries.

However, it seems that the main objectives of establishment of museums have not been clear to many of these governments, in light of the randomness in diversity and distribution of the museums map in Egypt, their prevalence in Cairo and governorates, and their distribution among various ministries and authorities.

Hence, comes this study on the map of museums in Egypt in terms of their prevalence and feasibility, which relies on the data of the annual bulletin of cultural statistics for 2020, issued by the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) in January 2022, as well as the data of the annual bulletin of cultural statistics for 2019, also issued by CAPMAS, in March 2021.

In this issue:

Despite agreement that the state should be subject to the law and should achieve the principle of legality, there is a wide difference between constitutional jurisprudence regarding the interpretation of the legal basis on which the principle of legality is based. The focus of this dispute has been: Why is the state subject to the law? Which comes first, the state or the law? In attempt by jurists to answer these questions, many theories have emerged tried to explain the basis of the state’s subordination to the law, and which one comes first in existence: the law or the state.

El-Affendi says that the British Publisher “Grey Seal Books” asked him to author a short book on a topic related to any contemporary Islamic idea, so he chose to write on the topic of the “Islamic State”. The book was initially published under the title: “Who Needs an Islamic State?” Its first edition came in 1991, in England. The author says that the book targeted the “thinking Muslim readers”. El-Affendi decided to author this book when he discovered that the arrival of an Islamist movement to power in Sudan was a real disaster because of its submission to authoritarian tendencies and the failure to make democracy a priority. The disaster becomes more tragic – according to El-Affandi – when we discover that the Islamic movement in Sudan was more open to democratic principles and ideas than most Islamic movements in other countries, although those movements were mainly victims of tyranny. The book was translated from English into Arabic, Turkish and Malay. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan commented on the book, when he was governor of Istanbul, that it was the most important book written for Islamic movements.

The study springs from the fact that the field of knowledge production is the higher education field that is most affected by globalization. It seems that the flow of information and data is an urgent hereditary feature of knowledge economy that absorbs globalization to become a system for distribution of knowledge, through increasing alliances and partnerships during the search for acquiring specialized and modern knowledge resulting from a wide range of basic and applied research, cutting-edge partnerships and confluence of basic and applied research. The distribution of knowledge production can create a world of collaborative arrangements; it is the need to possess specialized knowledge in all fields which underlies the current growth of networks and proliferation in research and development of companies and alliances.

Many Chinese foreign policy stances reveal that there is an almost unanimity among Chinese leaders in portraying the United States as a major source that is capable of obstructing Chinese interests abroad, were the source of concern for the Chinese is related to the American unilateral policies, which makes it difficult for China to protect its foreign interests in the short term. Meanwhile, Chinese officials and academics believe that the United States is preparing for a long conflict with China – to achieve the goal of containing it, as it did with the Soviet Union.

The study springs out from the hypothesis that policies of the international powers towards Sudan and Ethiopia come within the short and long term calculations, governed by the position of each country, with respect to its weight and influence, as well as its position in the international doctrine, the divisions of rapprochement and divergence with international powers, and its position in serving the existing international order.

Russia is the largest external supplier of oil and natural gas to the European Union, so, the European Union seeks to maintain and strengthen its role as a safe and reliable supplier of energy. For this reason, both parties have sought to establish a strategic partnership between them to ensure security of energy supplies. As far as the growing demand on Russian energy from the European Union is concerned, Russia seeks to turn this demand into a factor of strategic power, at a time when it is also in dire need to export its energy to the European Union, being the main consumer. In fact, Russia has transformed energy into political and economic gains, which has raised the United States’ concerns over its strategic partner and the global role that Russia plays using the energy card.

The Horn of Africa region has always been of particular significance in the strategies of interests of regional and international powers, to achieve their targets in the continent, even if means and tools to achieve these targets were different, according to the nature of variables of the international order. The countries of the Horn of Africa region are engaged in many conflicts, such as the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict, the Djibouti-Eritrean conflict, the Somali-Ethiopian conflict, the crises of terrorism and piracy, and others. However, the region enjoys many natural resources such as oil and natural gas, in addition to the significant geographical location of some countries which led to militarization of the region through concentration of a number of foreign military bases that were established in the region for political, military and economic goals, giving the region great geostrategic importance.

The study addresses the military balances amid the Russian-Ukrainian war, exploring the strategies of armies of Western countries and the Russian Federation, the repercussions of the military conflict on the rules and infrastructure of the international order, and highlighting the risks the world is exposed to, in light of continuation of the war, which came in time of economic exhaustion after the Coronavirus Pandemic. The study also attempts to handle the conflicting narratives and military strategies between international and regional actors, which makes prolongation of the military conflict and unwillingness to cease fire, reasons for further complicating the negotiating structure of the conflicting parties.

The study seeks to provide an answer to the main question as well as sub-questions that revolve around the nature of conditions that can determine the policies that China may pursue towards the two sides of the conflict, and how much China has been effective towards the war. The author followed the analytical method to study and analyze the circumstances surrounding the Chinese politics. The study concluded that China considers Russia a strategic ally, but such alliance is more linked to economic interests and hostility to America and the West than being linked to ideology.

The study attempts to find out the reality of military penetration of Egypt’s local administration; how far this pattern of administration is effective, to society or to regime, as well as its viability and likely survival. The paper also attempts to explore whether this military domination of local government is due to existence of a (fundamental) authoritarian need, or to an (objective) need for a strong local authority after a revolution that led to loosening grip of the central government?

This study sheds light on private companies working in the field of security protection and military interventions. The importance of this study lies in highlighting the role of these companies in international wars and conflicts as a major reliable actor. The study discusses how far the activities of these companies are legal from the perspective of international law, especially international humanitarian law.

The study addresses sources of sovereignty in the Iranian political system, at the intellectual and constitutional level, and their repercussions on the principle of balance between powers. The study is divided into two main axes: the first relates to the development of theories of Shiite political thought, with focus on four main theories: the taqiyya (dissimulation) theory, the limited public deputization or representation (of Imam), Velayat-al-Faqih (guardianship of the jurist), and the absolute Velayat-al-Faqih. The second axis is related to reviewing the sources of sovereignty in the Iranian Constitution, first by addressing the three sources of sovereignty: Allah, Nation, and Vali al-Faqih; second, the official political institutions sanctioned by the Constitution, and the extent of dominance of the leader (Vali al-Faqih) over those institutions, and how far the principle of balance between powers is achieved.

Tunisia has been moving at a steady pace towards democratic transformation since the outbreak of the Tunisian revolution in late 2010, until it became, according to most international classifications, a democratic state, compared to the rest of the Arab experiences whose revolutions were aborted through counter-revolutions and popular despair or were not able to move forward in their path towards democracy. Thus, the Tunisian experience was considered the exception and the ideal model for democratic liberation from the grip of tyranny among the peoples of the Arab world. Despite the fact that democracy was the one that brought the "independent" Kais Saied as elected president of the Tunisian republic; however, he created political and administrative disputes that led to the undermining of state agencies and disruption of government activities, posing threats to public interests.

The study addresses the political scene before the latest polls or the furnishing of the scene of 8 September 2021, so to speak, mainly due to the fact that the performance of the previous government was a major determinant of the electoral behavior of the citizen. The study also deals with the behavior of political parties and elites with the main political actor in Morocco. Certainly, this whole pattern does not go without the practice of democratic action in the country, as modern Morocco took its first step in this path at the beginning of the second millennium.

The Horn of Africa's security and social environment